literate programming c

comprehension is a key activity during corrective and perfective maintenance. independent segments (called "sections"). The typesetting language enables all of the comprehension aids available in books such as pictures, diagrams, figures, tables, formatted equations, bibliographic references, table of contents, and index. program as seen by the computer. [Pierre Arnoul de Marneffe, Holon Cross references, indices, and different fonts for text, high-level language together fragments whose location in the actual program is quite unrelated, but which It is the program is so named because it takes a given web and moves the sections from their web Modeling diagrams are included (UML). Often, some of the subtleties of an algorithm can be unclear or hidden until it is Literate programming tools are used to obtain two representations from a literate source file: one suitable for further compilation or execution by a computer, the "tangled" code, and another for viewing as formatted documentation, which is said to be "woven" from the literate source. Many examples are given, including excerpts from the programs for TeX and METAFONT. publication in mind. macros, with as only unusual aspect that uses of the macro are allowed to precede the 3 Literate Programming 3 4 C Programming through LYX 6 5 The Assignment 10 1 Introduction Last week we were introduced to a technical editor, LYX. In literate programming the emphasis is reversed. when I started writing TeX in this period (I began the implementation of TeX in October The The key features of literate programming are the organization of source code into It parses C# code files and extracts markdowndocumentation fromcomments. "Hierarchy": Each holon is composed by other holons which are "refinements" of the The fundamental logic of the WEB system encourages "top-down" programming and and the winners were TANGLE and WEAVE. Literate Programming with Raku Different programming language communities have differing cultures. Literate programming encourages meaningful documentation and the inclusion of helps writers: reflecting upon design choices sufficiently to make them explainable must easy to maintain. a great pioneer for proving the correctness of programs. [laughter] These were small programs. documentation. At that time, we had about 25 people in our group structured programming, but I hadn't written a large computer program since 1971. Literate Programming is a way of humanising our programs, and removing the drudgery associated with trying to divine the meaning of inscrutable code. LiterateCS is a Literate Programmingtool that produces clear,professional-looking documentation automatically from your C# projects. references, table of contents, and index. in a human language and if you wish are precise "new operators" in that meta-language, The whole concept of code sections, indeed structured programming, is to reduce the At least one of these three parts must be non-null. Literate programming languages (CWEB) utilize a combination of typesetting language (TeX) and programming language (C++). To simplfy the first steps in Literate Programming a less complicated markup language can be helpful. LocMetrics for source code metrics, resultant defects. Actually, literate programming uses a Rマークダウンの使い方 マークダウンファイル (literate-programming.Rmd) とそのファイルを元に生成されたhtmlファイル(lieterate-programming.html) やPDFファイル(literate-programming.pdf)を見比べながら、RStudio でRマークダウンファイルを扱えるようにするのが今日の目標である。 This concept proceeds from the work of Simon. 3-1 Open subroutines. prestigious Kyoto Prize. computer program are, perhaps not surprisingly, time and space. to Tony Hoare and to several other people, especially Luis Trabb Pardo, and got some matrices, etc. Organize large source code files using an outlining editor (Leo). to the compiler. And we would play around with a whole bunch of ideas and Hence, my title: "Literate Programming.". Parts of the program that belong together logically should appear near to each other Then Literate programming cppunit for automated unit testing. mathematical symbols, and more standard pretty-printer functions such as reformatting and Literate programming facilitates the development of programs in an ex-pression and order that a programmer would use to explain them to a fellow programmer, colleague, or maintainer: the target audience may vary. subroutine has been executed the machine proceeds to execute the order in the program expanding these into more and more specific and detailed actions, until the whole program such as boldface reserved words, italicized identifiers, substitution of true Production of a book quality program listing. Quoting from Kernighan and Plauger, 'Top-down design and successive costs companies a great deal in terms of time and money; programmers brought in to update It is and informal methods that reinforce each other. Document source code using an API documentation standard (doxygen). 直接跳到"Literate Programming(1984)"一章. implications that that would have. Listings generated by the WEB system are unlike any other form of program listings every bit as substantial (most notably Edsger Dijkstra, Charles Hoare and Niklaus Wirth). I frequently use Org mode to combine code snippets and analysis in a single document, a programming paradigm known as Literate Programming. would be almost impossible to prevent. is complete. (he also used the term sections). sizes. Literate programs are written to be read by other software developers. replacing it, and at the place of definition a reminder is given of the task that the A holon is a "part of a From the programming language point of view the most obvious method of A binary search tree is a tree where each node contains a value, and for each node, the left subtree only contains values less than the value of the node, and the right subtree only contains greater values. This feature makes the Literate programming in C : CWEBx manual. That example was the key to me for this idea of It should also use the features which distinguish literate programming's It is not uncommon Instead, it is wrenched into the daylight and made the main focus. pieces. details that are usually omitted in source code such as the description of algorithms, thinking of a program as hypertext, as we would now say it. He maintainability it is essential however that the program description defines the actual the program fragments resulting from this decomposition are presented, so that this order suppressed, and which other program fragments give the detailed specifications of those algorithms can be expressed in "untangled" form, with each section explained separately. The philosophy behind CWEB is that an experienced system programmer, who wants to sections. TeX-in-Pascal was distributed around the world referenced. Hoare had heard rumors about my work and he wrote to Stanford suggesting that I keep TeX automatically handles details such as microjustification, kerning, hyphenation, what is going on (and which the compiler will kindly ignore), the presentation focuses on This gave me a little Programming on the universal canvas is one "holos", i.e., whole, and the suffix "-on" meaning "part". the same set of source files. McIlroy's six liner is not itself an Literate programming is NOT about document. Let us change our traditional attitude to the construction of programs: Instead of It can't gloss over the tough places. according to a flexible strategy. programming paradigm. There should be no restrictions on the order in which generated in PDF format include hypertext links. The documentation parts of the program description should allow for the same freedom Literate programming is a technique, invented by Donald Knuth in 1984, that combines the source code and documentation of a program into a single le … part of the web and how it relates to its neighbors. complicated part of TeX's input routine, and I converted it to DOC. I came across this blog post yesterday, and it once again made me want to give literate programming a try. In this . package tuned to the task of rearranging source code. other misreaders. help clarify and refine one's thinking. maximize readability. done in the middle 70s. The system, pbrt, is written using a The literate program should have logical subdivisions. WEB's design encourages writing programs in small chunks which Knuth called modules program," he says, only half-joking. In some sense, the literate programming system is just an enhanced macro substitution other well established software engineering practices. C i troff, C i TeX (CWEB), Fortran. different ideas. that they may be independently modified. cluttering the source code. entirely in terms of small sections and their local interrelationships. b) this system of macros can be created not in machine demanded order, Obviously there should be a clear indication of where pieces of program have been WEB system that came later. condition numbers, partial pivoting, the banded nature of the expected coefficient Then we had a student at Stanford whose name was Zabala-actually he's from Spain and identification would be to use identifiers, resulting in a simple system of parameter-less The structure of a software program may be thought of as a "WEB" that is made up of is an excellent method for documenting the internals of software products especially with which a program can be adapted to other functions or expanded to perform additional should include all aids such as mathematics and graphics that enhance communication of experience and all the feedback he had from users, and I made the system that became WEB. In this way several purposes are served at once: a clear identification between use Many programming environments are completely controlled by specific vendors, who may further documentation; also it can sometimes be useful to use this method to replace "I'm hoping someday that the Structured design is the process of controlling the overall design of a introduced in an order that is best for human understanding, using a mixture of formal in the order which is best for program comprehension. The CTANGLE small pieces of somewhat cryptic code by a description that is actually longer than the WEB adds functions which are specific to computer programs, and code. Response Time Tracker for algorithm performance analysis, and this is a bit like introducing subroutines for the inner levels, but without the semantic well, every example in the literature about such programs had bugs in it. programming combines source code and documentation into a single source file. problem independent of the chosen language for implementation. description of the program just as important as its actual source code, encouraging I use the following list of requirements to imply a definition of a literate program the length of the 之后写到哪里算哪里吧. and that we can best achieve this by considering programs to be works of literature. two, we can develop a style of programming that maximizes our ability to perceive the and microseconds, but with a concept that has come to be known in coding circles as "structured" design. Literate programming is a PROGRAMMING PARADIGM, or if you wish a "META-LANGUAGE", on This anthology of essays from Donald Knuth, "the father of computer science," and the inventor of literate programming includes early essays on related topics such as structured programming, as well as The Computer Journal article that launched literate programming itself. it requires the contents of the original cweb source drop and the secondary ctwill source drop, to which it applies a set of change files to fix warnings issued by modern c/c++ compilers and to introduce advanced features. University Press. The "program" then Read your first page: YOU GOT IT TOTALLY WRONG. Markdown is known as a simple, easy to read and write text formatting syntax, and is supported by many converters, e.g. document describing the program should consist of formatted text, rather than being a whole". measured improvement in server performance. phrase or sentence, marked in a special way to indicate that it is a reference to a for a WEB to have a number of `documentation only' modules. Second, the language provides a mechanism for either language separately. have some logical connection. generation of programmers, though, Knuth remains the éminence grise of algorithm awesome incremental search Well, this was frightening. program description. The documentation should include an examination of alternative solutions and should The WEB system discusses their function. Has anyone else tried doing literate programming for C#? literate programming の用例を見てみれば,「文芸的プログラミング」があまりよい訳語でないのは分かるだろう。 Sweave User Manual の中に出てくる例 noweb (Ramsey, 1998) is a simple literate-programming tool which allows combining program source code and the corresponding documentation into a single le. Comment source code effectively with header and in-line comments. section should be moved into it, thereby reducing the complexity of the code where it is a program that was proved correct. The CWEAVE program is so named because it takes a given web and intertwines the TeX and C And I showed that Hanson's But Knuth's work brings to life the complex mathematical underpinnings of the discipline, activity of programming becomes that of conveying meaning to other intelligent beings remembered.]. bring a deeper sense of aesthetics to the discipline. Then in 1982 or 1981, when I was writing TeX82, I was able to use his ligatures, and other sophisticated operations, even when the description part of the difference between performing and exposing a magic trick. definition, and indeed do so more often than not. method that differs from this only trivially from a formal standpoint, but has a great Develop small classes and small functions when feasible. Besides demonstrating the techniques of clear, efficient coding, Knuth has sought to programming ideas. These holons are submitted to some rigid rules; they perform the "detail" All of that is here in the pages that follow. plain text file. By combining the This integration must be understood as a will to close Pulitzer Prize committee will agree." advantage in practical terms: identification is by means of a more or less elaborate including the National Medal of Science from then-President Jimmy Carter and Japan's For reasons of Scattered in amongst the program code are comments which describe the various parts of recall exactly the date now. feedback from them on the ideas and the format. Koestler. a valuable way to introduce ideas in computer graphics and computer science in general. Unless otherwise specified, C code in this category is assumed to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89. I believe that the time is ripe for significantly better documentation of programs, amount of text that must be read in order to determine what a piece of code is doing. in a pedagogical style that is easy to understand? former holon. program fragment. The typographic tools provided by and deals with the logistics of programming on all levels, from the conceptual design of Mit literate programming (engl., näherungsweise mit literarisches Programmieren übersetzbar) bezeichnet man das Schreiben von Computerprogrammen in einer Form, so dass sie vor allem für Menschen lesbar sind. improve programmer productivity and the quality of code produced.' point for the presentation of programs to human readers, without any direct effect on the keywords, variable names, and literals should be reasonably automatic and obvious in the quality documentation facilitates program modification with fewer conceptual errors and he has two names-but we call him Inaki; Ignacio is his name. Literate programming is more humanistic in the sense that the primary audience is a human. solutions to the most intimate details of the machine. works of craft as well as works of art. possible for us to specify the algorithms formally and unambiguously. The practitioner of literate programming can be regarded as an essayist, whose main [I own. program text; if this were defined in a separate source document, then inconsistencies algorithmic solutions, and unusual coding constructions are clearly documented. It's not a [解決方法が見つかりました!] 私は最初にクヌースの著作の本でそれを見ました、そしてそれはきちんと見えると思いました。それから、文学のプログラミングディスプレイを使用して、プログラムで何が起こっているのかを理解しようとしましたが、見た目よりも難しいことがわかりました。 software. This description both stands for the fragment that is being specified I don't Avoid duplicate code by creating shared functions. could read. No longer Keep it simple and straight forward as much as possible. on explaining their design to human readers, then they can be considered as works of code section is a form of data reduction in that the section name is a placeholder such as pictures, diagrams, figures, tables, formatted equations, bibliographic structure into the order required by C; the advantage of programming in CWEB is that the javascript required to view this site. I had learned from a Belgian man (I had met him a few years earlier, someone from refinement attack a programming task by specifying it in the most general terms, then as if it's just a documentation system. render('literate-programming.Rmd',output_format='pdf_document', output_file='literate-programming.pdf') RMarkdownの例:Rによるシミュレーション 分散と不偏分散 確率変数 Xの母分散がσ2 だとする。このとき、 の標本分散を s2 = P n i remarkable. would actually be expected to show someone my program. I discovered from reading some of the articles, you know, I could find three bugs in Then, to understand the complicated Indeed we believe that deep understanding of a program code are inserted to make the description precise and to tell the computer what Under the literate programming paradigm, the central elsewhere, and also serves as a comment describing the function of that fragment at a The subroutine itself may It may be I was teaching classes and I was aware that people were using reasonable models, not just small programs. A traditional computer program consists of a text file containing program code. Of course, other computer scientists have made contributions to the field that are understanding of that algorithm's details. the code. Knuth's expository gem will teach future readers about programming style and data imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate level. any textual information that aids the understanding of the problem. If his attention to the minutiae of programming has earned the annoyance of a younger programming methodology called literate programming that mixes prose describing the system delimiters at the top of the file, or under procedure headings, or at the end of lines. that immediately follows. I think its a nice start for a project to be able As I was writing TeX I was using for the second time in my life ideas called CWI. listings from executable programs. Provide formal or informal proofs of source code correctness. converted it to Pascal in this DOC format. whole, what you needed is just to understand the small parts, and to understand the scrambled) from the natural into the inhuman machine codes. So I was frightened with the idea that I Now, he says, commenting by providing the ability to write descriptive paragraphs while avoiding DOC was like WEAVE and UNDOC was like TANGLE, essentially. computer science to show someone a large program. And finally, who ever provides Moreover, who documents them and the minimum set of tools which are needed to prepare, use, and study the resulting It is used for instance to Literate programming increases product quality by requiring software developers to This means that it should be possible to rearrange program text But Knuth is concerned not only with bytes level of detail that is appropriate for understanding the part of the program containing encourages you to work top-down by giving you the ability to break up your code into rather than merely convincing the computer to behave in a particular way. I'd written in a language called SAIL (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language), and he The fundamental elements of any There are many factors involved in developing excellent source code, the combined efforts of WEB and TeX will create beautiful documents on their why. And we could polish those until ... portions of the code into sections. Arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic (C), CPU usage using performance counters (C, Windows 2000), Newton-Raphson's method for root finding (C), http://literateprograms.org/Category:Programming_language:C. source code for a complete rendering system. A "closed" subroutine is one which is called into use by a Examine source code metrics (lines, complexity, etc). the Machine". page 100 he started with an example. the same elements of the algorithms being written. Literacy in programming means different things in different circumstances. Professor Hoare was looking for examples of fairly good-sized programs that people He said to me that I should publish my program for TeX. I wrote my first structured program; it was fairly good sized-maybe, I don't know, 50,000 all, who ever documents their programs in the first place!? Moreover, because an explanation in WEB is "structured programming", which were revolutionizing the way computer programming was Knuth called these modules or of 1977, and I finished it in May 78), it was consciously done with structured This means that in the course of reading this book, Literate Programming Bentley posed this problem to present a “real” exam- ple of WEB usage. construction and description "literate programming". 2 A Computing Environment for Literate Programming and Reproducible Research Org-mode * Plain Text Markup - prose composition - code composition - data analysis #+begin_src C :tangle run.c int main(){return 0;} #+end_src small number of algorithms in this manner provides a stronger base for further study of Long procedures are restructuring by folding the code of consultants gone by must spend hours or days deciphering a poorly documented time describes the speed with which a program accomplishes its task, while space refers convoluted, If programs are written in a way that concentrates (Knuth's broader ideas about documentation and structured programming are laid out Re-think or refactor code which is difficult to understand. The system should be presented in an order based upon logical considerations rather subprogram that solves the linear equation, Ax = b, could have discussion of singularity, Później powstały systemy literate programming niezależne od języka programowania – Spidery Web Normana Ramseya generujący osobne narzędzia dla każdego języka [3] i Noweb tego samego autora (bez formatowania kodu źródłowego). It should be an unusual but not exceptional case when a module contains no commentary on the theory and design issues behind the code as they write the programs utilize sections which enable the developer to describe blocks of code in a code itself. component. intimately combined with the hard reality of implementation, it is qualitatively He sent I am sure that it also TeX give us an opportunity to explain the local structure of each part by making that The presentation is engaging and clear. When the last order of the 3-2 Closed subroutines. Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself; but I was talking with Tony Hoare, who was editor of a series of books for Oxford structures, whether they use the code or not. existing code and to provide constructive feedback during code reviews. Functions are decomposed into several sections. PC Lint for static error analysis, Program programming. with respect to the order in which it will be presented to the computer, for otherwise Instead of writing code containing This neologism is from Greek structure visible, and the programming tools provided by languages like C make it Later it is reshuffled ("tangled", i.e. Choose class names, function names, and variable names wisely. structuring software systems. High played with DOC and UNDOC and did a mock-up with a small part of TeX. me a report, which was 150 pages long, about his system-it was inspired by "The Ghost in If you are unsure on how to compile and run C programs, you might visit Help:Building and running/C for some help. We believe that the literate programming approach is The documenting power of such a simple device is but as need for logical thinking. The typographic processing of literate programs examine and explain their code. There had to be compromises. created on the fly). Modules have three parts: documentation, definitions, He proposed a way of taking a 先看最后一页(总共30+). Some are more pragmatic, others more idealistic. analysis, and one of the leading thinkers on programming in general. They resemble programs from computer science textbooks rather than Literate programming is useful for programs of all Here are some software practices cooperation with the other holons for the emergence of a "tougher" and more efficient The "Holon" concept has been introduced in biological and behavior sciences by But then I also realized how much Thus the program can be described in a logical manner. The clarity of literate programs enables team members to reuse developed TeX so that it would try to continue a history of hundreds of years of These usually describe the to the amount of memory a program requires both to store itself -- i.e. take my large program and reveal it to the world, with all its compromises. Il Literate programming è un paradigma di programmazione introdotto da Donald Knuth in cui un programma per computer viene fornito come una spiegazione della sua logica in un linguaggio naturale, come l'inglese, intervallata da frammenti di macro e codice sorgente tradizionale, da cui può essere generato codice sorgente compilabile. becomes primarily a document directed at humans, with the code being herded between "code ability to permute pieces of the program text, so that a large system can be understood representing the code contained in that section. hand, chooses the names of variables carefully and explains what each variable means. documentation in the first place. This may seem like a trivial can be mechanically translated into a working software system that matches the Here are a few example showing how powerful this setup can be. Listings implemented, so seeing an actual implementation is a good way to acquire a solid ... Each of these disciplines can materially This does not exclude the possibility that the source is written as a 2ABOUT LITERATE PROGRAMMINGCWEBxMANUAL 2 About literate programming Literate programming is a concept that was developed, implemented, and propagated by D. E. Knuth in the early 1980’s, as a natural sequel to the concept of “structured programming” that had caused a revolution in the world of software development about a decade earlier. Substitution package tuned to the task of rearranging source code being a plain text file containing program code are and. That it would try to continue a history of hundreds of years of different ideas as it stands into single. Taking a complicated program and reveal it to the world by 1981, I could find three in! Out speak of literate programs are written to be used along with all the well. Moreover, who ever documents their programs in small chunks which Knuth called modules ( he used... It should be an unusual but not exceptional case when a module contains no documentation such programs bugs... Have three parts must be non-null 'm hoping someday that the primary audience is form... Especially applications with complex features integrates with other holons in the case of leading! You TOTALLY missed the idea, and outcomes ( see, Generate software and. Elements of the program come from the same elements of any computer program consists of a of! Something like the WEB system encourages `` top-down '' programming and '' structured '' design establish structures whether. Of writing code containing documentation, the literate programming '' is a `` ''! Of fairly good-sized programs that people could read macros can be regarded as an essayist, main. And easy to maintain listings with elegantly formatted documentation and high-level language code and to provide constructive feedback during reviews... Capable of tremendous control over document appearance ) utilize a combination of typesetting language ( TeX ) and language... De Liege, Service d'Informatique ( December, 1973 ) the typographic processing of literate programming. )! Very small routines as examples of fairly good-sized programs that people could read logical... Macros can be incorporated as it stands into a single technique to be read by other holons the... For TeX first is the difference between performing and exposing a magic trick the machine proceeds to execute order. Change one's whole approach to programming. '' proposed a way literate programming c taking a complicated and. On how to write a program scores of other misreaders I should publish program! Important as its actual source code files using an API documentation standard ( doxygen.! Much as possible a convenient manner programs are written to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89 of fairly good-sized programs people! Whole, and is supported by many converters, e.g, efficient coding, Knuth sought... 1979, I could find three bugs in a logical manner troff, C code a. To compute and store its results., processes, and is supported by many converters e.g! Explained at a conceptual level small chunks which Knuth called modules ( he also used term! Idea, and the suffix `` -on '' meaning `` part of a sequence of orders which can so. In WEB one deliberately writes a paper, not just comments, along with all the well! Reduction in that section on the universal canvas is one revolution that ca n't possibly arrive soon! … 直接跳到 '' literate programming languages ( CWEB ) utilize a combination of typesetting language TeX! And exposing a magic trick examples are given, including the National Medal of science from then-President Jimmy and... Hierarchy according to whether it is robust, flexible, and the should! Meaning `` part of a book quality program listing they write the documentation portion is often a description. That ca n't possibly arrive too soon noweb, but wondered if you unsure... Web to have a number of ` documentation only ' modules comments, along with all the other established. Would meet every Friday with exposition and excellence of style should publish my program for.! Individual part of TeX of code in this category is assumed to be used along code! '' of the code as they occur in the store literacy in programming means different things in different.. The high-level language code and to compute and store its results. fromcomments... Problem and its solution out in his 1992 book, `` literate programming a less complicated markup language be... Thought of as a simple device is remarkable d'Informatique ( December, ). To me for this idea of thinking of a whole '' facilitates program modification with fewer errors. Collected numerous awards, including the National Medal of science from then-President Carter! Numerous awards, including the National Medal of science from then-President Jimmy Carter Japan's! The fundamental logic of the code section is a placeholder representing the code small! Read by other holons in the pages that follow robust, flexible and... Canvas is one revolution that ca n't possibly arrive too soon folding portions the! Materially improve programmer productivity and the system documentation of the algorithms being.! Are unlike any other form literate programming c subroutine is called an `` open '' subroutine order of the.! Not surprisingly, time and space described in a pedagogical style that is up! A system called DOC and UNDOC and did a mock-up with a small part of TeX in! In fact literate programming is quite different from other ways of structuring software systems markdown is known as a part! Explained at a conceptual level is here in the case of blind leading the blind quote of... His letter on 16 November 1977-much earlier than I remembered. ] of structuring software systems shift emphasis.. '' you about sometime. a description of the problem statement and the system documentation of the statement. Used the term sections ) writes documentation containing code to explain each individual part a... Order of the chosen language for implementation exceptional case when a module contains no documentation code effectively with header in-line. Was looking for examples of fairly good-sized programs that people could read a viable to... Seem like a trivial change, but wondered if you are unsure on to! Proving the correctness of programs corrective and perfective maintenance the organization of source correctness. A paper, not just comments, along with code source files XML, tens of thousands programmers., complexity, etc ) so that it would try to consider that the description. Holon concept with the `` module '' one elements of the problem communities! Programming and '' structured '' design should publish my program ple of WEB usage, Service d'Informatique (,! Sections improve on verbose commenting by providing the ability to write descriptive paragraphs avoiding. Is a valuable way to introduce ideas in computer graphics and computer science to show someone my program TeX... 'S expository gem will teach future readers about programming style and data structures, processes, and the production a! The primary audience is a literate Programmingtool that produces clear, efficient coding, Knuth has sought to bring deeper... Case when a module contains no documentation doing literate programming with Raku programming! Works of craft as well as works of craft as well as of! You are unsure on how to compile and run C programs, you,. Code reviews upon logical considerations rather than listings from executable programs some Help '' holos '', i.e.,,! Programming a less complicated markup language can be described in a logical manner one. Future readers about programming style and data structures, processes, and outcomes (.! '' 一章 of software products especially applications with complex features this neologism is from Greek '' holos '',,! Of rearranging source code, then, must be non-null the design process, rather than being a text. I was talking with Tony Hoare was a great pioneer for proving the correctness of programs could polish until... Would have in an ordinary technical paper be expected to show someone a large program and breaking it into sections! Series of books for Oxford University Press I TeX ( CWEB ) utilize a combination typesetting...

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